Pathology Poster – TORCH Syndrome

The original TORCH complex described clinically similar congenital infections caused by Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus, types 1 and 2. Cutaneous manifestations, including petechiae, purpura, jaundice, and dermal erythropoiesis, are commonly seen in toxoplasmosis, rubella, and cytomegalovirus infections. In herpes simplex virus infections, 80% of symptomatic infants show single or grouped cutaneous vesicles, oral ulcers, or conjunctivitis. Extracutaneous signs and symptoms are variable and can be severe. Significant clinical signs in congenital toxoplasmosis include diffuse intracerebral calcification, chorioretinitis, and microcephaly; congenital rubella can result in deafness, congenital heart disease, retinopathy, and brain calcification. Cytomegalic inclusion disease can include hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, paraventricular calcification, and intrauterine growth retardation. Localized or disseminated congenital herpes virus infection often involves the central nervous system and the eye. Diagnosis is confirmed by culture and identification of species-specific immunoglobulin M within the first 2 weeks of life. Histological examination contributes to the diagnosis in herpes simplex virus infection.

TORCH syndrome. Epps RE, Pittelkow MR, Su WP. Semin Dermatol. 1995 Jun;14(2):179-86. 







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