Pathology Poster – Lazy Leukocyte Syndrome


A New Disorder of Neutrophil Function

A primary abnormality of leucocyte function—a deficiency of chemotaxis— has been found in two unrelated children with recurrent infection. The syndrome is characterised by recurrent stomatitis, otitis, gingivitis, and low-grade fevers, normal humoral and cellular immunity, severe peripheral neutropenia, normal numbers of mature, morphologically normal neutrophils in the bone-marrow, poor peripheral blood leucocyte response to chemical or inflammatory stimulation, poor neutrophil chemotaxis, and severely impaired random mobility of neutrophils. Neutrophils from peripheral blood or from bone-marrow suspensions had normal phagocytic and bactericidal activities, but almost no chemotactic activity. Infection and fever in these patients seems to result from an inability to release and mobilise otherwise functionally normal neutrophils in the presence of bacterial stimuli. The precise receptor defect in these ” lazy leucocytes ” remains to be defined.





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Pathology Poster – TORCH Syndrome

The original TORCH complex described clinically similar congenital infections caused by Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus, types 1 and 2. Cutaneous manifestations, including petechiae, purpura, jaundice, and dermal erythropoiesis, are commonly seen in toxoplasmosis, rubella, and cytomegalovirus infections. In herpes simplex virus infections, 80% of symptomatic infants show single or grouped cutaneous vesicles, oral ulcers, or conjunctivitis. Extracutaneous signs and symptoms are variable and can be severe. Significant clinical signs in congenital toxoplasmosis include diffuse intracerebral calcification, chorioretinitis, and microcephaly; congenital rubella can result in deafness, congenital heart disease, retinopathy, and brain calcification. Cytomegalic inclusion disease can include hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, paraventricular calcification, and intrauterine growth retardation. Localized or disseminated congenital herpes virus infection often involves the central nervous system and the eye. Diagnosis is confirmed by culture and identification of species-specific immunoglobulin M within the first 2 weeks of life. Histological examination contributes to the diagnosis in herpes simplex virus infection.

TORCH syndrome. Epps RE, Pittelkow MR, Su WP. Semin Dermatol. 1995 Jun;14(2):179-86. 







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Pathology Poster – Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness)


Human African Trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness, is a disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.

Humans are the main reservoir of both forms.    

These hemoflagellate protozoa are transmitted by the bite of various species of Glossina, the tsetse fly.

Visit: Pathology of Human African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness)






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Educational Gif – Broken Heart Syndrome or Takotsubo Syndrome (Stress Cardiomyopathy)


Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy is also known as broken heart syndrome or stress cardiomyopathy.

“Takotsubo syndrome” was first described by the Japanese authors Dote and Sato in the 1990s.

Visit:  Yes your heart can literally break ! – Broken heart syndrome or Takotsubo syndrome:





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Educational Gif – Pathology of Pulse Granuloma (Hyaline Ring Granuloma)

Pulse Granuloma (Hyaline Ring Granuloma) of the oral cavity is a rare disorder considered to be a foreign-body reaction resulting from implantation of food vegetable particles.

Microscopically, it is characterized by the presence of structures of hyaline rings in an inflamed fibrous tissue background together with numerous multinucleated giant cells.




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Educational Gif – Pathology of Vitamin C Deficiency

Scurvy is a rare disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C.

The clinical presentation of this lesion is well recorded in the history of medicine.

Scurvy usually present as perifollicular hemorrhages, corkscrew hairs, large areas of ecchymoses and hemorrhagic gingivitis.

Clinicians should be aware of this potentially fatal but easily curable disease that can occasionally affect adults and children.

Visit:  Pathology of Vitamin C Deficiency





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