Angiomyofibroblastoma [Pathology Infographic]


Angiomyofibroblastoma is a rare tumor that occurs in the genital tract, vulva, perineum, and pelvis of women.

In men, angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumors are known to occur in areas such as the inguinal area, scrotum, and perineum.

In 1997, Nucci et al first described an angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor as a cellular angiofibroma .

Thereafter, in 1998, Laskin et al termed it an angiomyofibroblastoma-like tumor .

Clinically, the tumor has asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, and slowly growing characteristics.




Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumour [Pathology Infographic]


Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumors (PHATs) are non-metastasizing soft-tissue tumors of uncertain lineage occurring within the superficial subcutaneous tissues and muscles .

Presents in adults between the ages of 10 and 83 years (median age of 51 years), PHATs are more commonly observed in females than in males.

The majority of affected patients present with slowly-growing, painless masses, most commonly involving the lower extremities.

Rarer tumor sites include the arm, chest wall, axilla, popliteal fossa, buttocks, inguinal region, perineum, buccal mucosa and breast.


SUZUKI K, YASUDA T, HORI T, et al. Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor arising in the thigh: A case report. Oncology Letters. 2014;7(4):1249-1252. doi:10.3892/ol.2014.1883.




Is your hairdresser having respiratory problem? Do you know the reason?



Is your hairdresser coughing, sniffing and has a chronic respiratory problem?  Are you concerned about her health? She should consult a doctor immediately.

According to  a study  by Ümran Toru et al  smoking may aggravate occupational airway disease in hairdressers. Smoking increase both  respiratory complaints and decreased respiratory functions in this profession.

In a study by Brisman et al. that was performed with the aim of evaluating the wheezing, dry cough, and nasal congestion in hairdressers, the survey on respiratory symptoms, atopy, smoking, and job history was answered by three thousand nine hundred and fifty-seven female hairdressers and four thousand nine hundred and five reference women from general population. When compared with references, the ratios of all three symptoms in hairdressers were found to be high and hairdressing was correlated with an increased incidence of respiratory symptoms. The combined effect of hairdressing and smoking was found to be lower than expected and it was proposed that smoking has negative modifying effect.

In a study by Slater et al., the occupational respiratory symptoms in hairdressers were examined. A survey was done on a hundred hairdressers and employees of one hundred and six offices and stores   covering their respiratory symptoms, demographic data and smoking habits. Respiratory functions were measured before each shift. Asthma symptoms, diagnosis, and asthma attack prevalence of hairdressers in the previous twelve-month period were found to be high.  High symptom prevalence in hairdressers was associated with high smoking ratios and average pulmonary function values were found to be low.

According to the study  cough, phlegm, and chest tightness were  noted more in smokers compared to nonsmokers. Rhinitis was also more in smoking hairdressers.

“In conclusion, hairdressers were determined as an occupational group the majority of which was formed by women, in which respiratory complaints and rhinitis history were frequently observed in the subgroup in which cotinine was above 500 ng/mL and where both occupational and smoking status had an additive effect.”

Cutting off smoking could help in this profession.


  • Ümran Toru, Peri Meram Arbak, Kezban Özmen Süner, Özlem Yavuz, and Naciye Karataş, “Relationship between Respiratory Tract Complaints, Functional Status, and Smoking in Hairdressers, Auto Painters, and Carpenters,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, Article ID 802705, 7 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/802705
  • “The incidence of respiratory symptoms in female Swedish hairdressers,” The American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 673–678, 2003.
  • “Occupational respiratory symptoms in New Zealand hairdressers,” Occupational Medicine, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 586–590, 2000.

Tadpole shaped ducts in Syringoma -Pathology Infographic


Syringoma is a benign tumour derived from acrosyringium, the intraepidermal portion of eccrine/apocrine sweat ducts.

They are largely asymptomatic tumours and are predominantly of cosmetic significance.

Syringomas are typically localized to the eyelids of middle-aged women; however, other sites include the ventral surface of the trunk, forehead, neck, axillae, abdomen and rarely the penis, vulva, buttocks, moustache area and scalp .

A classification scheme has been proposed by Friedman and Butler  identifying 4 variants of syringoma: a localized form, a form associated with Down syndrome, a familial form and a generalized form (encompassing multiple and eruptive syringomas). Incidental Syringomas of the Scalp in a Patient with Scarring Alopecia. Case Rep Dermatol. 2015 Jul 24;7(2):171-7.




Epithelioid Sarcoma – A lethal tumour in young patients -[Infographic]

“What the mind does not know, the eyes do not see”.

Epithelioid Sarcoma is a rare malignat tumour and can look deceptively benign.

It was first described by Laskowski in 1961 as “sarcoma aponeuroticum”  as it involved aponeuroses and surrounding structures.

Later Enzinger introduced the current term “epithelioid sarcoma”.

Only an expert histopathologist with many years experience can think of this rare tumour on haematoxylin and eosin stain.

Smart pathologists have an eye to catch the clues immediately.  Later, immunohistochemistry and cytogenetics  help in confirming the diagnosis.

This tumour can be mistaken for chronic inflammatory condition, necrotizing granulomas, and various fibrohistiocytic tumours.

Wrong diagnosis can delay proper treatment and can actually kill a young patient.

There are star pathologists in every part of the world. I dedicate every blog post for those excellent, silent workers.